Abstract: The potential of tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon) leaf refuse from bidi industry waste to remove phenol from aqueous solution was studied. For this purpose, the tendu leaf refuse was carbonized by subjecting it to chemical treatments with sulfuric acid. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption equilibrium of tendu leaf refuse and chemically carbonized tendu leaf refuse was reached within 2 hr for phenol concentration 10-25 mg/l and 1 hr for phenol concentration 20-200 mg/l, respectively. The adsorption of phenol decreases by the increase of the pH value of the solution. The kinetic data followed more closely the pseudo-second-order chemisorption model. The adsorption data were modelled by using both Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity of chemically carbonized tendu leaf refuse as per Langmuir model was 4 times higher than that of raw tendu leaf refuse. The results illustrate how tendu leaf refuse, a solid waste disposal menace from bidi industry, can be used as an effective biosorbent for phenol in aqueous solution.
Keywords: Diospyros melanoxylon, biosorption, pseudo-second-order kinetics
Abstract: The experiments were carried out in the years of 2000, 2001 and 2003 at Kafr El-Sheikh. The main objective of this research was to study the influence of growing seasons and types of unheated plastic house on yields of two cucumber F1 hybrids. Downy mildew and powdery mildew were lower in the winter season than during the early summer season. Likewise, they were lower inside the double span house than inside the single span house (at 60 days after transplanting).The highest total yield as number and weight was produced from Petostar hybrid grown inside the double span house during the early summer season.
Keywords: plastic tunnels, cucumber, seasons, cultivars
Abstract: Decrease in species diversity by overgrazing is one of the crucial indicators for ecosystem deterioration. Sika deer (Cervus nippon Tamminck) has grazed various plants on Nakajima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, for a few decades, due to low food availability. We examined if diverse microtopography supported high species diversity by conserving specific plants on the grassland of the island where overgrazing by deer occurred. Based on TWINSPAN analysis, three plant community types were classified: grasslands represented by short seed plants, ferns, and unpalatable forbs. Grasslands dominated by short and/or unpalatable seed plants established on the flat ground, while fern species except Equisetum arvense did not establish there. Soil hardiness was higher on short-plant grasslands than on unpalatable-forb grasslands, suggesting that palatability on plants was related to plant community differentiation on the flat ground. Of 10 fern species recorded, 9 species established mostly in deep pits. Pit depth was more important than pit area to maintain high fern diversity. Those results indicated that diverse microtopography, i.e., pit development, supports fern diversity, because of the multiplier effects of predator avoidance and preferable sites for fern establishment. Diverse and/or specific microtopography must be a prerequisite to conserve rare species and high diversity in such disturbed areas.
Keywords: fern diversity, grassland, microtopography, overgrazing by deer, palatability, pit depth
Abstract: Zonation of conservation sites has been modelled by overlaying different layers such as vegetation type, species richness, endangered, endemic, economic status maps and socio-cultural value map using remote sensing and GIS in the Pacchaimalai hills part of Eastern Ghats in India that is spread to an area of 527.61 sq. km. These hills are situated at the mid regions of Tamil Nadu with latitudes 11°09'00" to 11°27'00" N and longitudes 78°28'00" to 78°49'00" E. They harbour eight vegetation types of which tropical dry deciduous forests are widespread with rich diversity. As in other hills, the forest cover is under severe anthropogenic pressure in spite of being protected as a reserved forest. This study proposes about 0.93% (4.95 sq. km) of the total area of the Pacchaimalai hills for immediate conservation. The effectiveness of the proposal would be based on the attitude and awareness of local people towards vegetation who inhabit the areas adjacent to proposed sites and the effective monitoring by foresters and participatory approach of both the people and forest authorities to accomplish the goal of the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of natural resources.
Keywords: conservation, remote sensing, geographical information system, species richness, Margalef index
Abstract: Little information is available on the threats against biodiversity in Kenya. This is critical in prioritizing conservation strategies and instituting mitigation procedures to contain and or eliminate these threats for the survival of biodiversity in protected areas. This study aimed at documenting relative severity of threats and how serious protected parks are threatened. Two hundred protected area officers were interviewed. The most relatively severe threat factors were bush meat trade; poaching for trophies; human – wildlife conflicts; human population encroachment; loss of migration corridors and dispersal areas. Thirty-two (64%) protected areas were susceptible to over half of the threat factors, while over 70% of them were threatened by an index over 0.5. All marine and nearly all forested/montane protected areas were highly susceptible to the identified threat factors. Further, protected areas popular with tourists were also highly susceptible and threatened. Protected areas around urban/industrial and agricultural areas were threatened mostly by a variety of threat factors. These findings imply that threats to Kenya’s protected areas are serious. They are critical in helping the Kenya government to prioritize its strategies in protected areas management, rather than the current haphazard approach.
Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, ecosystems, dispersal areas
Abstract: In 2002, 2003 and 2004, we took macoinvertebrate samples on a total of 36 occasions at the Badacsony bay of Lake Balaton. Our sampling site was characterised by areas of open water (in 2003 and 2004 full of reed-grass) as well as by areas covered by common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia). Samples were taken both from water body and benthic ooze by use of a stiff hand net. We have gained our data from processing 208 individual samples. We took samples frequently from early spring until late autumn for a deeper understanding of the processes of seasonal dynamics. The main seasonal patterns and temporal changes of diversity were described. We constructed a weather-dependent simulation model of the processes of seasonal dynamics in the interest of a possible further utilization of our data in climate change research. We described the total number of individuals, biovolume and diversity of all macroinvertebrate species with a single index and used the temporal trends of this index for simulation modelling. Our discrete deterministic model includes only the impact of temperature, other interactions might only appear concealed. Running the model for different climate change scenarios it became possible to estimate conditions for the 2070-2100 period. The results, however, should be treated very prudently not only because our model is very simple but also because the scenarios are the results of different models.
Keywords: climate change scenarios, diversity, macrofauna, simulation model
Abstract: The impact of organic material quality on biomass production and reproduction potential of commercial composting earthworm species: Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus and Perionyx sansibaricus were studied, by using three different type of culture material namely Jbs: (Jowar straw (Sorghum vulgare) + bajra straw (Pennisetum typhoides) + sheep manure) (1:1:2), fym (farmyard manure), and Kw + Ll (Kitchen waste + leaf litter of Magifera indica) (1:1), under laboratory conditions for 150 days. The above substrate or culture materials have different palatability, particle size and physiochemical composition. Kitchen waste (C-to-N = 26.7) as well as farmyard manure (C-to-N = 27.4) is a high quality material with fast decomposition rates, while crop residues are low quality materials with slow decomposition rates (C-to-N = 45.6). All the three studied earthworm species showed maximum biomass production rate in Kw + Ll culture (E. eugeniae = 9.80 ± 0.01 mg worm-1 day-1, P. excavatus = 3.75 ± 0.01 mg worm-1 day-1, and P. sansibaricus = 3.77 mg worm-1 day-1). Individual cocoon production rate varied drastically, and maximum value (worm-1 week-1) of it was observed in Kw + Ll for E. eugeniae (1.88 ± 0.15) and P. sansibaricus (1.77 ± 0.14), while P. excavatus showed maximum cocoon production rate in Fym (1.79 ± 0.17). The hatchling success of cocoons obtained from different beddings was also observed and cocoon obtained from Kw + Ll culture exhibited maximum hatchling success (%) in all the three species studied. The cocoons of both E. eugeniae and P. sansibaricus, obtained from Fym culture showed the highest number of hatchlings (cocoon-1) i.e. 1.59 ± 0.04 and 1.81 ± 0.10, respectively, whereas cocoons of P. excavatus showed the highest hatchling number (1.77 ± 0.06) in Kw + Ll. In this present study, there was a consistent trend of decreasing individual biomass as well as cocoon production rate, followed by their peak values with ageing of the culture materials. The relationship between different earthworm parameters and N-content or C-to-N of culture material was also evaluated. The biomass production rate and hatching success in all the three species studied showed direct correlation (p 0.05) with N-content of the culture material. However, beddings’ N-content did not affect the individual cocoon production rate, except to P. sansibaricus (r = 0.987, P 0.001). The number of hatchlings per cocoon for P. sansibaricus, showed good correlation (r = 0.935 p 0.01) with N-content of organic material used for worm culture. Results clearly show a possible relation between hatchling success/number of hatchlings per cocoon, and chemistry of culture substrate.
Keywords: organic waste, vermiculture, Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus, Perionyx sansibaricus, Cocoon, Hatchlings success, Hatchling number
Abstract: This study assessed the potential of carbon sequestration on aboveground biomass in the different forest ecosystems in Thong Pha Phum National Forest, Thailand. The assessment was based on a total inventory for woody stem at > = 4.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH). Aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equation and aboveground carbon stock was calculated by multiplying the 0.5 conversion factor to the biomass. As the results, carbon sequestration showed varied in different types of forests. Tropical rain forest (Ton Mai Yak station) higher carbon stock than dry evergreen forest (KP 27 station) and mixed deciduous forest (Pong Phu Ron station) as 137.73± 48.07, 70.29± 7.38 and 48.14± 16.72 tonne C/ha, respectively. Habitat variability caused differences of biomass accumulation, species composition and the allometric relationships of forests. In the study area, all forest had a similar pattern of tree size class, with a dominant size class at > = 4.5-20 cm. The > = 4.5- 20 cm trees potentially provided a greater carbon sequestration in tropical rain forest and dry evergreen forest while the size of > 20- 40 cm gave potentially high carbon sequestration in mixed deciduous forest. Due to the trees have the lowest carbon sequestration but they considerably grow up to the further size classes. Apparently, they will be able to increase more biomass accumulation and store more carbon. In conclusion, the greatest carbon sequestration potential is in mixed deciduous forest and followed by tropical rain forest and dry evergreen forest in Thong Pha Phum National Forest. Finally, the appropriate forest ecosystem management can be an alternative solution for carbon dioxide reduction in terms of carbon sink role.
Keywords: carbon stock, biomass, allometric equation, diameter at breast height
Abstract: The influence of soil pH was evaluated on the abundance and generic diversity of cyanobacteria in soil samples collected from diverse rice soil ecologies of India. Qualitative and quantitative studies of the 52 soil samples collected from nine agroecologies was carried out using enrichment, MPN (Most Probable Number) techniques and diversity indices were measured. A total of 166 forms, including 130 heterocystous and 36 non-heterocystous isolates were isolated and the highest percentage of abundance of heterocystous forms was observed at pH of 8.1. Highest Shannon’s diversity index was recorded at a pH of 6.9, followed by pH of 7.4, while indices of richness and evenness (J and E) were highest in soil samples of pH of 9.3. This study highlighted the successful colonization of cyanobacteria in rice field soils of diverse pH and the need for enrichment of the native flora as a means of exploiting the full potential of cyanobacterial biofertilizers in agriculture
Keywords: abundance; cyanobacteria; diversity indices; rice ecologies; soil pH
Abstract: The microbiological quality and safety of raw camel milk from different farms in Qassim region (middle Saudi Arabia) were examined. Milk samples (n=33) were aseptically collected from the milking bowls. Samples were analyzed for several microbial quality attributes including aerobic total plate count (ATPC), psychrotrophs (PC), aerobic mesophilic sporeforming bacteria (AMSC), Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and moulds and yeasts. Furthermore, the presence of selected pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella was detected. The mean log counts per ml for ATPC, psychrotrophs, aerobic mesophilic spore former, Enterobacteriaceae, and moulds and yeasts were 5.0, 3.8, 2.1, 2.7, and 1.9, respectively. Coliform group was found in 45.5 % of samples while 12% were faecal coliform positive as revealed by MPN method. S. aureus was located in 70% of the samples and the mean count was 2.7 log cfu per ml. Meanwhile, salmonella was detected in 24% of the samples. Results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk under the present production conditions.
Keywords: camel milk, aerobic total count, psychrotrophs, coliforms, aerobic spore former, S. aureus, Salmonella
Abstract: Assessment of plant diversity of the Reserve Forests of the west Himalaya and prioritization of communities for conservation have not been given much attention. Therefore, the study has been conducted in a biodiversity rich Mornaula Reserve Forest between 1500-2200m to analyse the structure, composition of the forest communities including richness of economically important, native, endemic and rare-endangered species, and prioritize communities for conservation. A total of 123 sites were sampled. For each site, habitat characteristics, altitude and dominant species have been given. From the sampled sites, 289 species (37 trees; 37 shrubs; and 215 herbs) and 31 forest communities have been recorded. The density of trees ranged from 340-2438 Ind ha-1 and TBA from 19.52-234.31 Ind m2. The densities of saplings ranged from 340.00-2277.00 Ind ha-1 and seedlings 266.00-1571.00 Ind ha-1; shrubs 357-1156 Ind ha-1 and herbs 21.73-431.04 Ind m-2. The richness of the trees ranged from 3-27, shrubs, 8-36, herbs, 17-145, seedlings, 3-22, and saplings, 2-21. Species diversity for trees ranged from 0.99-2.93, seedlings, 0.86-2.65, saplings, 0.44-2.78, shrubs, 1.94-4.43 and herbs, 1.42-4.66. These recorded values were almost comparable with the studies conducted in sub-tropical, temperate and sub-alpine regions of the west Himalaya. In some cases the values were slightly higher than the reported values. The communities have been prioritized for conservation based on the species richness, nativity, endemism, economically important and rare-endangered species. Among, all the prioritized communities, Rhododendron arboreum community supports maximum species including native, endemic, economically important and rareendangered species. In view of the high socio-economic and conservation values of the identified communities, monitoring of these communities at least for a period of five years and development of appropriate strategy and action plan for the conservation and management have been suggested.
Keywords: Reserve Forest, communities, diversity, native, rare-endangered, socioeconomic, prioritization, conservation