Abstract: Expected climate change estimations for the Carpathian basin and especially, Hungary, are summarized for the 2071-2100 period on the basis of the results from the project PRUDENCE. Different regional climate models (RCMs) used 50 km as the horizontal spatial resolution, and evaluated the A2 and B2 global emission scenarios. Results suggest that in case of temperature, a warming trend is evident in the Carpathian basin. The largest warming is expected in summer. The expected change of annual total precipitation is not significant. However, significantly large and opposite trends are expected in different seasons. Seasonal precipitation amount is very likely to increase in winter, while it is expected to decrease in summer, which implies that the annual distribution of precipitation is expected to be restructured. The wettest summer season may become the driest (especially in case of A2 scenario), and the driest winter is expected to be the wettest by the end of the 21st century. It is evident that all these climate processes affect agricultural activity and disaster management strategy. In order to prepare for the changing climate conditions, results of this regional climate change analysis may serve as basic information.
Keywords: Regional climate change, temperature, precipitation, Carpathian basin, regional climate model
Abstract: We have recently developed a new material by carbonizing refuse derived fuel (RDF) not discharging dioxin and other toxic fine particles. This recycled carbonaceous material (CRDF) has two major good points: 1) rich in the three chemical elements of fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium) and 2) a good adsorbent like activated charcoal. In this study, making the best use of these merits, we looked into the possibility of using this material to restore seaweed forests that were damaged by human activities. We confirmed that no toxic substance was liquated out from this material. In the laboratory experiments, the growth of a species of marine green algae (Derbesia tenuissima (Moris et De Notaris) Crouan) was accelerated by this material. CRDF might supply nitrogen short in seawater as the form of nitrate. Our technique was actually effective to introduce marine algae in the fields using a series of test plates that included this material ranging from 0 to 8.2 % (w/w). We might not only recover biodiversity in coastal ecosystems by restoring seaweed forests but also remarkably reduce atmospheric CO2 released in the process of the incineration of waste with this technique.
Keywords: atmospheric CO2, biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, carbonaceous material, water pollution
Abstract: Tailings and plants were sampled from the abandoned Cu-tailing ponds of Rakha mines, Jharkhand, India. Tailings have high concentration of Cu, Ni and characterized by moderately acid environment and low nutrient contents. Plants belonging to 5 genera and 4 families were collected and analysed for metals in their above and underground tissues. Plant communities respond differently depending on their ability to uptake or exclude a variety of metals. Accumulated metals were mostly retained in root tissue indicating that an exclusion mechanism for metal tolerance widely exists in them. Retention of some metals more than toxic level in the above ground tissues of some plants suggests the presence of internal metal detoxification and tolerance mechanisms in them.
Keywords: Cu-tailings, heavy metal, metal tolerance, natural vegetation
Abstract: This report presents novel parameters for evapotranspiration-mediated wastewater phytotreament. Leaf area capacity could be used to measure the water loss from phytotreatment tank. Relative effect concentration was a measure the reduction of leaf area capacity due to increasing COD level. Additional advantage of using the two parameters was to address the suitability of various types of wastewater in phytotreatment by means of COD equivalent.
Keywords: evapotranspiration, plant capacity, relative effect
Abstract: Soil microbial biomass is considered as an important early indicator of changes that may occur in the long term with regard to soil fertility and constitutes an important source and sink of nutrients. In South Africa, rangeland monitoring has mostly focused on assessing changes of aboveground vegetation in response to land uses effects, but the associated changes at belowground soil level remain a topic of further research. The aim of this study was to explore soil microbial biomass at three sites under communal grazing management. Soils from grazed and adjacent ungrazed rangeland plots were collected at a depth of 0-25 cm towards the end of the rainy season in April 2005. The soil microbial biomass was characterized by analyzing the phospholipids ester-linked fatty acids. Soils were also analyzed for organic carbon, pH, and total phosphorus. Results showed no statistically significant differences in organic carbon and soil microbial biomass between the grazed and ungrazed plots at any of the sites. Both organic carbon and soil microbial biomass were low, ranging from 0.06 to 0.11% and 489.28 pmol g-1 to 1823.04 pmol g- 1, respectively. Fourteen grass species were recorded during the vegetation surveys, and most occurred in low abundance. Plants supply organic materials as energy sources for microbial growth, so the low soil microbial biomass could be a reflection of the low vegetation abundance. This study provides essential baseline information regarding soil microbial activity never reported before in these rangelands. Further investigations are required for in-depth understanding of the underlying processes that regulate soil microbial biomass dynamics at these sites.
Keywords: soil microbial biomass; microbial community structure; vegetation composition, abundance and cover; soil quality
Abstract: Organic wastes are extensively increasing with increased human populations, intensive agriculture and industrialization. The disposal of wastes has become important for a healthy quality of environment. In this regard recycling of utilizable organic wastes is feasible. The recycling of wastes through vermicomposting reduces problems of disposal of organic wastes. Vermicomposting, a novel technique of converting decomposable organic wastes into valuable vermicompost through earthworm activity is a faster and better process when compared with the conventional methods of composting. Within a very short period, a good quality compost rich in nutrient and vitamins is prepared, which is a highly efficient, cost effective and ecologically sound input for agriculture. The present study was carried out to find the changes in the levels of vitamins namely vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin C present in fruit wastes during vermicomposting at different time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days) by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eiseniae fetida. The levels of vitamin A, E, and C were found to be higher in fruit wastes degraded by Eisenia fetida than Eudrilus eugeniae.
Keywords: Vermicomposting , fruit wastes, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, Vitamins.
Abstract:Seeds dormancy-breaking was investigated for Garcinia kola Heckel by using techniques that can afford small farmers for domestication. Garcinia kola seeds in their natural habitat have 6 weeks to 18 months dormancy. The methods experimented to overcome seed dormancy included conservation or removal of seed coat followed by pre-germination treatments including soaking for 24 hours in cold water (25°C), or in hot water (70°C); immersion in pineapple juice or incorporation in banana false trunk for one week. Sand mixed with compost and sawdust were used as germination substrata. The germination rates were quite low (0-40%) due to poor seed quality. Seed coat removal followed by soaking in cold water affected positively dormancy-breaking while the warm treatment caused embryo destruction and failure of seed germination. The effective dormancy-breaking methods to be recommended were decoated seeds soaked in cold water, coated seeds placed in banana false trunk and coated seeds soaked in pineapple juice where germination started 95, 102 and 110 days respectively from sowing with 130-141 days as mean germination time. The germination substratum irrespective of dormancy-breaking method didn’t affect significantly either the germination percentage or the germination time. Further investigation is necessary to improve dormancy-breaking.
Keywords: Garcinia kola, seed dormancy-breaking, germination rate, germination time, seedling growth.
Abstract: We studied the impact of low-density grazing on arthropod diversity in a small wetland (7 ha) in South Germany. The location was abandoned for 20 years, and was then grazed by Galloway for 4 to 5 years. The study site included the following habitat types: open land, a stand of alder (Alnus glutinosa), a stand of willows (Salix spec) and alder and a brookside. We counted higher species numbers on grazed than on neighbouring abandoned areas in ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders. Grazing explained a considerable amount of the variance of the species composition, and species typical for grazed plots could be identified. We found higher frequencies of insects during winter in Cirsium stems from grazed than from ungrazed areas. Grasshoppers and katydids (Saltatoria) of the grazed open land showed a general trend of increasing species number during the study period. Our findings show that low density grazing by cattle can favour habitat diversity even in small areas which enhances species numbers. However, special habitat types such as reed may need to be excluded from grazing in order to maintain the associated specific invertebrate community.
Keywords: Grazing, arthropods, insects, diversity, wetland
Abstract: In the north-eastern outskirts of town Pécs (south Hungary) colonisation by terrestrial isopods and centipedes were studied in a post-mining recultivated area. During 4 months in 2002 a total of 140 pitfall traps that were positioned in the recultivated area, in the adjoining forest and in the forest edge yielded 289 specimens of 5 Isopoda species, and 250 specimens of 15 Chilopoda species. It is primarily the terrstrial isopod (Ligidium germanicum, Protracheoniscus amoenus, Trachelipus rathkii) and centipede (Lithobius erythrocephalus, L. forficatus, L. mutabilis, L. muticus, L. parietum) species living in the neighbouring forest that visited the recultivated area. Nevertheless, in the seventh year after recultivation, these were not valued as stable terrestrial isopod or centiped communities because of the low specimen and species numbers, and due to the irregularity of their occurrence.
Keywords: colonisation, recultivated area, Isopoda, Oniscoidea, Chilopoda, Hungary.
Abstract: The present paper deals with the rhizosphere effect exerted on the microbial communities by ten representative and important tree species of the Indian Himalayan region. The study covered a wide altitudinal range (1200 to 3610 m above mean sea level) representing subtropical to subalpine climatic conditions. The rhizosphere to soil (R:S) ratio was found to range from 0.2 to 3.5, 0.3 to 2.9, and 0.3 to 3.4, for bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. Barring a few exceptions, generally the tree species of subtropical and temperate regions exerted a slight stimulatory effect on the rhizosphere microorganisms. Coniferous species of the subtropical and temperate locations viz., Cedrus, Pinus and Taxus supported relatively higher microbial population in the rhizosphere in comparison to other species. Abies pindrow (a conifer), Betula utilis, and Rhododendron campanulatum, species of the subalpine region were found to exert a distinct negative rhizosphere effect. The negative rhizosphere effect coincided with lowering of the soil pH in the rhizosphere region.
Keywords: rhizosphere, R : S ratio, Himalayan trees, soil microbes, soil pH.
Abstract: The present study discusses the hourly distributions of Macolepidoptera and Microlepidoptera species caught by a light-trap. The fractional type mercury vapour (125 W) light-trap had been operated by Mészáros, at Julianna-farm of the Plant Protection Institute between 1976 August and 1979 July. This trap was not in operation every night in this period, only periodically. It was in work during 57 nights in total. We summarized all caught specimen of all species hourly. In this way, we examined data of 66 species. We calculated percentages from hourly-totalized specimen number. We made a comparison between nightly distributions in caught species activity and Tshernishev’s activity types.
Keywords: Lepidoptera, fractional catching, flying activity
Abstract: The dry deciduous forest of northern India is being progressively invaded by an alien invasive woody shrub Lantana camara L. (Lantana). The invasion of lantana threatens the survival of many species. This study examines the demographic instability of tree species at different levels of lantana cover. Based on proportion of seedlings of a species in its total population (seedling+sapling+adult), about 39.5% and 60% of total 38 species exhibited local demographic instability at different levels of lantana cover for the first and the second census respectively. This decline in species could be attributed to altered microenvironment (light, pH and temperature) beneath the lantana bushes. The study concludes that the presence of lantana shrub as dense understorey perturbs the seedling recruitment of native tree species in the forest and this leads to differential depletion of native trees.
Keywords: declining species population, demographic instability, invasion, lantana cover.
Abstract: Tolerance to Zn2+ by pure cultures of Bacillus, Salmonella and Arthrobacter species isolated from New Calabar River sediment was assessed through dehydrogenase assay. The cultures were exposed to Zn2+ concentrations of 0.2 to 2.0 mM in a nutrient broth-glucose-TTC medium. The responses of the bacterial strains varied with Zn2+ concentration. In Salmonella sp. SED2, Zn2+ stimulated dehydrogenase activity at 0.2 mM. In Bacillus sp. SED1 and Arthrobacter sp. SED4, dehydrogenase activity was progressively inhibited with increasing Zn2+ concentration. The IC50 ranges from 0.206 ± 0.030 to 0.807 ± 0.066 mM. Total inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed at concentrations ranging from 1.199 ± 0.042 to 1.442 ± 0.062. The order of zinc tolerance is: Salmonella sp. SED2 > Arthrobacter sp. SED4 > Bacillus sp. SED1. The result of the in vitro study indicated that Zinc is potentially toxic to sediment bacteria and could pose serious threat to their metabolism in natural environments.
Keywords: dehydrogenase activity, sediment bacteria, New Calabar River
Abstract: Present paper is a review on the Ráckeve-Soroksár Danube in ecological standpoint. The goal of this study is to collect and evaluate all of available publications in that conception, concerning this Danube arm. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, vertebrates, macrophytes and also water chemistry, water management, geographical description are presented. The review comprises the main studies beginning with the earliest faunistic publications up to the recent ecological, multidisciplinary investigations. Spatial and temporal patterns likewise water quality are considered as important. Additionally checklist of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate fauna are given based on data from literature.
Keywords: Danube, water quality, eutrophication, composition
Abstract: Urbanisation is a long standing problem and phenomenon all around the world. It means more and more challenges for scientists. Remote sensing techniques with high spectral and spatial resolution open novel approaches which enable the analysis of vegetated and non-vegetated urban surfaces with high heterogeneity. In this paper it is demonstrated how hyperspectral images and thermal maps can be used for detecting vegetated and built-in areas in a city. Methods were collected and developed that can describe different features of urban climate and ecological state. The most important vegetation indices and urban climate parameters were calculated: red-edge position values for green places, different NDVIs, defining the role of vegetation in surface temperature carried out by masking method, urban heat island intensity, horizontal surface temperature gradient by means of Fourier-transformation and classified thermal maps.
Keywords: urban climate, hyperspectral remote sensing, thermal images, red-edge, urban vegetation
Abstract: Groundwater quality is an inevitable factor for sustainable agriculture as a source of irrigation water. Therefore, the study was conducted in an irrigated sand dune area of northwest Honshu island in Japan to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation. Three observation wells were installed in the investigated field made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe with three plastic tubes to collect groundwater of 2.0 m, 2.5 m and 3.0 m. The sampling was performed every month from January to November, 2005. Assessment of groundwater quality was performed on the basis of total dissolved solids (TDS), concentration of sodium (Na), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), total hardness (HT) and concentration of phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P). Total dissolved solids in groundwater was ranged between 145.5-249.4 mg l-1 during the investigation period, revealed that irrigation using groundwater of the study area would not cause salinity hazards. Concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg were decreased with depth throughout the investigation period. The average concentration of Na and SAR value were 18.8 mg l-1 and 0.81, respectively. Since groundwater of the study area contained low concentration of Na with low SAR values, there would not be any possibility of sodium hazards from irrigation using groundwater. On average groundwater of the study area contained 27.5 mg l-1 Ca and 9.35 mg l-1 Mg, which might contribute to moderate hardness of groundwater in the study area.
Keywords: Groundwater quality, irrigation, sand dune area, Honshu island.
Abstract: Any activity that receives inputs and convert them to outputs can be considered as a process. Essentially the same model equations are used in the theory of chemical, biochemical, nuclear, mechanical, or other process engineering. The goal of our researcher group has been to identify the processes, a network of processes, process variables and process equations in food logistics. In our paper we introduce how process building, simulation run and optimization can be carried out in a Food Distribution Centre with a message-based discrete event simulation software. We identify the parameters of the general equations of the discrete event models, with two corresponding examples. We also introduce how simulation can work as a decision supporting tool in the hand of company management, and how can a wrong decision affect the extent of air pollution coming out from cooling vehicles.
Keywords: Food logistics; discrete event models; simulation technique; queuing, air pollution