Colloquial Finnish displays a pattern of first coǌunct agreement (FCA) that is strikingly similar to patterns attested in other languages. I consider the possibility that existing analyses of FCA proposed for other languages may account for the Finnish data. Ultimately, I conclude that none of the previous analyses considered here are able to adequately explain Finnish FCA. A new analysis of FCA is proposed in order to account for the Finnish data that relies on a bidirectional version of the operation Agree. Thus, the Finnish FCA data both expand our understanding of how FCA is manifested cross-linguistically and provide new evidence bearing on recent debates about the directionality and timing of agreement.
Keywords: Finnish, first coǌunct agreement, bidirectional Agree
This paper is primarily meant to be a descriptive overview of how intonation contributes to the realisation of simple declarative sentences in Hungarian. The first aim of the paper is to offer a description of those aspects of Hungarian intonation that may have grammatical and informational functions in Hungarian sentences. The second aim is to provide a notational system whereby the intonational facts of Hungarian declarative sentences can be transcribed. The third aim is to give a detailed analysis of the grammatically and informationally relevant intonational facts of simple Hungarian declarative sentences, concentrating on attitudinally neutral intonational solutions. We do this in three steps: first we examine the intonation of the Comment, and then the intonation of the Topic(s) in these sentences, and finally we suggest ways in which certain intonational rules we have established separately for the Comment and the Topic(s) can be conflated.
Keywords: Hungarian, intonation, declarative sentence, topic, comment, focus