a borítólapra  Súgó epa Copyright 
Aetas36. évf. (2021.) 1. sz.



  • Varga Dániel :

    New Data Regarding the International Media Coverage of the Danubian Confederation Plan

    The most important document of Kossuth’s emigration has been examined multiple times, but the international media coverage of the plan that was leaked due to the indiscretion of Ignác Helfy has rarely been touched upon. The digitalisation of contemporary newspapers is currently at the point where we can start discussing the media coverage of the plan and examine the various opinions regarding the Danubian Confederation and the arguments for and against it. By reviewing the French, Italian, English, and German newspapers we can see that they discussed the plan that was published in the newspaper Alleanza (The Alliance), but they gave more room to negative opinions and criticism, and they barely even considered Kossuth’s clarifications. It is important to note that Ignác Helfy’s foreword was not published at all, even though he states that it should not be considered an official political document, and the newspapers discussed the plan like it was a complete political program. Due to being more involved the Italian and German language press discussed the plan significantly more, and it can also be seen that apart from the Italians - who had an interest in weakening the Habsburg Empire – every press outlet wrote about the plan either neutrally, or more often in a negative light.

  • Deák Ágnes :

    An Attempt at Introducing Multilingual Secondary Education in Hungary, 1861–1862

    With his October Diploma adopted on 20 October 1860 Franz Joseph I restored the status of Hungarian as the official language of Hungary, but he wanted to preserve the right of individual citizens and settlements to use their own languages. He ordered a consultation about the language of gymnasiums with the faculties, the supervising religious authorities and the city councils. Following these consultations, the Governor’s Council declared Hungarian to be the primary language of all gymnasiums but permitted local majority languages to be used as “auxiliary languages”. Due to strong opposition to the decision Franz Joseph ordered the Governor’s Council to issue corrections and compelled 23 gymnasiums to adopt multilingual education and made German a mandatory subject in all institutions. The majority of the faculties of the schools involved were against the introduction of multilingual education. The Governor’s Council was on the side of the faculties in schools where most students were Hungarian. The Emperor eventually allowed exclusively Hungarian education in certain schools but made their own language and literature compulsory subjects for non-Hungarian speaking students. In the other institutions, especially in the Slovakian regions, attempts were launched at introducing multilingual education, even though the form and extent of these attempts varied.

  • Buzinkay Géza :
    Ney Ferenc, az író, a forradalmár és a pedagógus44-71 [433.47 kB - PDF]EPA-00861-00092-0030

    Ferenc Ney: Writer, Revolutionary, Educator

    Ferenc Ney (1814-1889) was a well-known public figure of his time in Pest: he was a play-wright, a novelist, a journalist, prominent member of Reform Era organizations, an important figure of Hungarian education, and a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His handwritten memoire is a rich source about the public and literary life of 19th century Hungary, and Pest in particular. Ferenc Ney grew up without a mother with his merchant father and craftsman tutor. He became a student at the Premonstratensian School in Szombathely, the went on to become a tutor for aristocratic families, for example the family of Count Brunszvik at Martonvásár. He was the author of the first published Hungarian sci-fi novel, attended universities in Vienna and Pécs, was one of the copiers of Kossuth’s Parliamentary Reports, as well as a published journalist. He was a member (usually the secretary) of every important society and association of the 1840s, his plays were performed in the National Theatre, and he also translated classic operas to Hungarian. In 1844 he was elected headmaster of the institution for training kindergarten teachers in Pest. In 1848 he participated in the Revolution as the lieutenant of the revolutionary legion in Terézváros and a city representative, later he was held captive in the Neugebäude Palace. It seemed that all his previous activities reached a dead end, but in the late 1850s he had the chance to apply for the position of Hungarian teacher in a prestigious German-language secondary school in Pest (the current Eötvös József Gimnázium), which he got, later becoming headmaster and transforming it into a Hungarian-language school. His endeavours were so successful that ‘his leadership turned the institution into an exemplary realgymnasium well-known even abroad.’

  • Tóth Kelemen :

    „Just write to me again” – Family Community Through a World War I Correspondence

    During the late hours of June 20th, 1916, in the little Volhynian village of Hruzyatyn, the 31st infantry regiment of the Royal Hungarian Honvéd successfully held back the attacking Russian troops in the fights after Brusilov’s breakthrough. Meanwhile, in Komárom County, Hungary, István Horváth, the notary for Gyermely, did not yet know that he had lost his second son, Endre Horváth. He fell there at Hruzyatyn. Endre kept a regular correspondence with his family, so as his brothers. Many of these letters were kept throughout the generations in an aging, brown suitcase, keeping the minds and sentiments of a family who lived through a century fraught with danger. This study looks to answer the following question: What can we learn from these correspondences from 1903 to 1921 about family life and behaviour, as well the impacts of war on the smallest unit of society, the family? After Péter Hanák’s study, Népi levelek az első világháborúból (Folk letters from World War I), World War I soldier’s letters were subjects of several historical analyses. Studies were written that used soldiers’ letters to identify traces of folk literature, to better visualize the everyday world of war, and to examine how a world changed by war impacted linguistic stereotypes. Through the literature of correspondence and war correspondence, first world war soldiers’ letters can be immensely helpful sources to understand the affairs of a family from this time period. Private letters can bring new perspectives for the present interested in the past. From written private correspondence we can learn the emotions, thoughts, the inscape, the worldview, and overall, the unique micro world of the person from the past. Letters that were written during wartime have outstanding value, because their writers were in a strange and abnormal life situation. Thus, we can experience the emotions of individuals in a more direct and open form, as far as the censorship (or the elusion of that) allows it.

  • Kisling Zénó :

    The Operation of the National Socialist Teachers League in the Gau Munich-Upper Bavaria After the Takeover (1933–1937)

    The situation and duties of German public-school teachers changed drastically after the period of national socialist takeover. They became more important for the state since the new ideology relied more on elementary schools, folk customs, and sports compared to the Republic and Empire before it. Knowledge and culture took a back seat, and physical education and instilling a sense of community became the focus of early education. It was the job of elementary school teachers to introduce these changes to society by raising the new national socialist generation in this spirit. To achieve this the regime first had to win over and retrain the teachers to be able to do their job effectively and in accordance with the ideology. The question is how the teachers reacted to this effort? What social and economic problems they had to face, and to what extent these problems could move them towards national socialist beliefs? What was their relationship like with the state? What kinds of organisations they had? This study aims to find the answer to these questions within the theoretical framework of professionalization by examining how the National Socialist Teachers League operated. The Munich City Archive was the primary source for this research, which granted insight into the local operations of the National Socialist Teachers League, and through that the changes in the teachers’ everyday lives.


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